Check the Farmer's Almanac for the winter weather predictions to know what kind of winter prep you'll need to do in your garden. (http://www.almanac.com/weather/longrange)
Here are a few things you can do to prepare for and during winter:
Annual Garden Planning: Companion Veggies
Annual Garden Planning: Companion Herbs
Perennial Garden Planning: Veggies
Perennial Garden Planning: Color for Shade or Sun
Planning Out Your Garden
Part of homesteading means keeping a home less reliant on bought produce during the growing season. Winter is generally not growing season, unless you have a greenhouse, but it is a great time to get a head start on planning out what you can and will grow come spring.
Growing your own produce is, admittedly, much easier if you have outdoor space and access to sunlight, but it is not impossible if you live in a basement (ahem, "garden") apartment, as we used to. Consider your space and light when planning out what you will grow, whether you can host a full backyard garden or just a few pots with a growing light.
To jumpstart your efforts at maximizing your growing space, check out the charts below for some ideas on what to plant, where to plant it, and why to plant it.